Proving equivalence between control software variants for Programmable Logic Controllers: Using Regression Verification to Reduce Unneeded Variant Diversity (bibtex)
by Ulewicz, Sebastian, Vogel-Heuser, Birgit, Ulbrich, Mattias, Weigl, Alexander and Beckert, Bernhard
Abstract:
\textcopyright 2015 IEEE. Automated production systems are usually driven by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). These systems are long-living and have high requirements for software quality to avoid downtimes, damaged product and harm to personnel. While commissioning multiple systems of similar type, pragmatic adjustments of the software are often necessary, which results in two or more similar variants of initially identical software. For further evolution of the software, an equivalence analysis of the software's behavior is beneficial to merge divergent development branches into a single program version. This paper presents a novel method for regression verification of PLC code, which allows one to prove that two variants of a plant's software behave identically in specified situations, despite being implemented differently. For this, a regression verification method for PLC code was designed, implemented and evaluated. The notion of program equivalence for reactive PLC code is clarified and defined. Core elements of the method are the translation of PLC code into the SMV input language for model checkers, the adaptation of the coupling invariants concept to reactive systems, and the implementation of a toolchain using a model checker. The approach was successfully evaluated using the Pick-and-Place Unit benchmark case study.
Reference:
Proving equivalence between control software variants for Programmable Logic Controllers: Using Regression Verification to Reduce Unneeded Variant Diversity (Ulewicz, Sebastian, Vogel-Heuser, Birgit, Ulbrich, Mattias, Weigl, Alexander and Beckert, Bernhard), In IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, volume 2015-October, 2015.
Bibtex Entry:
@inproceedings{UlewiczUlbrichWeiglBeckertVogelHeuser15,
abstract = {{\textcopyright} 2015 IEEE. Automated production systems are usually driven by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). These systems are long-living and have high requirements for software quality to avoid downtimes, damaged product and harm to personnel. While commissioning multiple systems of similar type, pragmatic adjustments of the software are often necessary, which results in two or more similar variants of initially identical software. For further evolution of the software, an equivalence analysis of the software's behavior is beneficial to merge divergent development branches into a single program version. This paper presents a novel method for regression verification of PLC code, which allows one to prove that two variants of a plant's software behave identically in specified situations, despite being implemented differently. For this, a regression verification method for PLC code was designed, implemented and evaluated. The notion of program equivalence for reactive PLC code is clarified and defined. Core elements of the method are the translation of PLC code into the SMV input language for model checkers, the adaptation of the coupling invariants concept to reactive systems, and the implementation of a toolchain using a model checker. The approach was successfully evaluated using the Pick-and-Place Unit benchmark case study.},
author = {Ulewicz, Sebastian and Vogel-Heuser, Birgit and Ulbrich, Mattias and Weigl, Alexander and Beckert, Bernhard},
booktitle = {IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA},
doi = {10.1109/ETFA.2015.7301603},
isbn = {9781467379298},
issn = {19460759},
keywords = {Formal verification,Manufacturing automation,Software maintenance,Software quality,improve-aps},
mendeley-tags = {improve-aps},
pages = {1--5},
title = {{Proving equivalence between control software variants for Programmable Logic Controllers: Using Regression Verification to Reduce Unneeded Variant Diversity}},
url = {http://formal.iti.kit.edu/improve/pubs/etfa2015.pdf{\%}5Cnhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=7301603},
volume = {2015-October},
year = {2015}
}
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